Monday, February 8, 2010

HOMEWORK SET 2 (Completed)

BIOLOGY1361
HOMEWORK SET 2

Review Exercises / Critical Thinking problems

Chapter 7: (1 – 20) on page 203

1. List and describe briefly the 5 functions of the skeleton/skeletal system.
2. What’s the “osteon”?
3. What’s the function of cartilage?
4. What’s the process of endochondral ossification (include osteoblasts and osteoclasts)?
5. What is the purpose of the epiphyseal plate?
6. What bones are in the axial skeleton? In the appendicular skeleton?
7. Name the 5 sections of the vertebral column with the number of vertebrae in each.
8. What the heck are true, false, and floating ribs? How many each are there?
9. What’s a synarthrotic joint?
10. What’s a amphiarthrotic joint?
11. What’s a diarthrotic joint?
12. What’s a joint capsule?
13. What are open, closed, and comminuted fractures?
14. The three types of arthritis are:
15. When a patient receives a bone marrow transplant, what vital process is being restored?
16. Explain how the canaliculi allow bone to heal more efficiently than cartilage.
17. What effect does the task of child bearing have on the difference between the male and female skeleton?
18. Is it possible to tell whether a child is going to grow any taller? If so, how? If not, who cares?
19. Compare and contrast the causes and changes associated with osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget disease.
20. Why is astoiditis potentially more dangerous than a paranasal sinus infection?

Chapter 8: (1-22) on pages 230-231

1. Describe the structure of the cardiac muscle.
2. Describe the structure of the smooth muscle.
3. Give the function of tendons, bursae, and synovial membranes.
4. Explain how tonic contractions halp maintain posture.
5. Give an example of how two body systems other than the muscular system contribute to the movement of the body.
6. Explain twitch and tetanic contractions.
7. Explain isotonic contractions.
8. Explain isometric contractions.
9. Name two muscles in the head, or neck and give the origin, insertion, and function of each.
10. Name two muscles that move the upper extremity and give the origin, insertion and function of each.
11. Name two muscles of the trunk and give the origin, insertion and function of each.
12. Name three muscles of the lower extremity and give the origin, insertion and function of each.
13. Describe the following movements: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation.
14. What signs and symptoms are likely to accompany a moderate muscle strain?
15. What causes the signs and symptoms of myasthenia gravis?
16. Draw and label a relaxed sarcomere; explain the process that causes a sarcomere to contract.
17. Explain the interaction of the prime mover, the synergist, and the antagonist efficient movement.
18. Describe the condition that causes a muscle to develop pan “oxygen debt.” How is the debt paid off?
19. Why can a spinal cord injury be followed by muscle paralysis?
20. Can a muscle contract very long if its blood supply is shut off? Give a reason for your answer.
21. Briefly explain changes that gradually take place in bones, joints, and muscles in a person who habitually gets too little exercise.
22. Briefly explain the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Chapter 9: (1-31) on page 276

1. Draw and label the three parts of the neuron and explain the function of the dendrite and axon.
2. Name the three types of neurons classified to the direction in which the impulse is being transmitted. Define or explain each of them.
3. Define or explain the following terms: myelin, nodes of Ranvier, and neurolemma.
4. Name and give the function of the 3 types of glia cells.
5. What occurs at the cellular level in M.S.? And what effect does this have on the body?
6. From what type of cells or tissues do neuromas develop?
7. Define or explain the following terms: epineurium, perineurium, and endoneurium.
8. What causes gray matter to be gray, and white matter to be white? What color is the White House?
9. Explain how a reflex arc functions. What are the two types of reflex arc?
10. Explain what happens during a nerve impulse. What is salutatory conduction?
11. Explain what occurs at a synapse. What are the two ways that neurotransmitter activity is terminated?
12. What is the cause of Parkinson Disease? What are some treatment options?
13. Define Dementia; unless you have dementia.
14. What is a seizure (not a legal seizure by the FBI)?
15. List two possible causes of Alzheimer’s, if you can remember.
16. List and dexeirbe the function of the medulla oblongata
17. List and describe the function of the hypothalamus.
18. List and describe the function of the thalamus.
19. List and describge the function of the cerebellum.
20. Give the general function of the cerebrum. What are the specific functions of the occipital and temporal lobes?
21. List and describe the functions of the spinal cord.
22. Name and explain the three layers of the meninges.
23. What’s the function of the cerebrospinal fluid? Where and how is it produced?
24. How many nerve pairs are generated from the spinal cord? How many nerve pairs are generated from each section of the spinal cord? How are these nerves named? What is a “plexus”? What is a Lexus?
25. Define neuritis and neuralgia.
26. What’s the cause of tic douloureux? What is the cause of Bell’s Palsy?
27. Explain the structure and function of the sympathetic nervous system.
28. Explain the structure and function of the parasympathetic nervous system.
29. List the functional regions of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes.
30. Which of the cranial nerves deal primarily with motor function? Which deal primarily with the sensory function?
31. There is a type of medication that inhibits the function of acetylcholinesterase (the enzyme that deactivates acetylcholine). Explain the effect this medication would have on the visceral effectors.

Chapter 10: (1-25) on page 305

1. Name the general sense found in the kin or subcutaneous tissues and lis the type of stimuli to which each of them responds.
2. Name the two general senses of proprioception and give the location of each.
3. With what type of information do proprioceptors provide us?
4. Explain how the iris changes the size of the pupil.
5. Explain how the ciliary muscles allow eth eye to focus on near and far objects.
6. What is presbyopia and what is its cause?
7. Name the two types of receptor cells in the retina. Explain the differences between the two receptors.
8. What is glaucoma and what’s its cause?
9. What are cataracts, what causes them, and how can they be prevented?
10. What is meant by the visual pathway. Where is the blind spot and what causes it?
11. Explain how the disorder strasbismus affects vision.
12. What causes diabetic retinopathy?
13. Briefly explain the structure of the external ear.
14. Explain how sound waves are transmitted through the middle ear.
15. Explain how sound waves are converted to an auditory impulse.
16. Explain how the structure in the inner ear help maintain balance or equilibrium.
17. What is Méniere disease?
18. Where are the gustatory cells located, and to what four “primary “ tastes do they respond.
19. Explain how the sense of smell is stimulated.
20. Explain why food loses some of its taste when you have a rhinovirus with a congested nasal passage.
21. Explain why the longer you are in a newly painted room the les you are able to smell the new paint?
22. Where in the eye is light sensed? Where is it perceived?
23. Explain why the smell of a “doctor’s office” or the smell of a turkey cooking can easily generate an emotional response.
24. Why are there many more men, than women, color-blind?
25. Rock musicians sometimes lose their ability to hear high frequency tones; explain.

Chapter 11: (1-26) on pages 336-337

1. Differentiate between endocrine and exocrine glands.
2. Define or explain the following terms: hormone, target organ, hypersecretion, and hyposecretion.
3. Explain the mechanism of action of non-steroid hormones.
4. Explain the mechanism of action of steroid hormones.
5. Explain, and give an example of a negative feedback loop for the regulation of hormone secretion.
6. Explain, and give an example of a positive feedback loop for the regulation of hormone secretion.
7. Explain the difference between prostaglandins and hormones. List some of the body functions that can be influences by prostaglandins.
8. Describe the structure of the pituitary gland and where it is located.
9. Name the 4 tropic hormones released by the anterior pituitrary gland and briefly explain their functions.
10. Explain the function of growth hormone.
11. Gigantism and acromegaly have the same cause; what is the cause and what causes the different in effect between the two conditions?
12. Explain the function of ADH.
13. What is the cause of diabetes insipidus? What are the signs and symptoms of the condition?
14. Explain the function of prolactin and oxytocin.
15. Explain the function of the hypothalamus in the endrocrine system.
16. Explain the difference between T3 and T4. What’s unique about the thyroid gland?
17. Distinguish between cretinism and myxedma.
18. Name the hormones produced by the zones or areas of the adrenal cortex.
19. What are the signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome? Of Addington’s disease.
20. Explain the function of aldosterone.
21. Explain the function of glucocorticoids.
22. Explain why a secondary messenger system is needed for non-steroid hormones, but not for steroid hormones.
23. Pick a body function (regulation of glucose or calcium levels in the blood) and explain how the interaction of hormones is used to help maintain homeostasis.
24. Why is a goiter usually more of a dietary problem rather than an endocrine problem?
25. A medical doctor discovered that a patient had very low levels of thyroxine by noting high levels of TSH. Is the patient’s problem in the thyroid gland or in the pituitary gland? Explain your answer.
26. If a person who is diagnosed with diabetes mellitus were found to be producing a normal amount of insulin what other cause could explain the diabetes?





Chapter 12: (1-19) on pages 369-370

1. Name several substances found in blood plasma.
2. Explain the function of albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen.
3. What is the difference between serum and plasma?
4. What two types of connective tissue form blood cells? Where are they found and what do each of them form?
5. Describe the structure of a red blood cell. What advantage does this unique shape give the red blood cell that helps it perform its function?
6. Both aplastic anemia and pernicious anemia are characterized by low red blood cell count; explain the difference in their causes.
7. What is the buffy coat?
8. Explain the function of neutrophils and monocytes.
9. Explain the function of lymphocytes.
10. Explain the function of eosinophils and basophils.
11. Distinguish the difference between leucopenia and leukocytosis.
12. How is hemophilia transmitted? What blood clotting factors can be affected?
13. Explain the process of blot clot formation.
14. Differentiate between a thrombus, embolus, and city bus.
15. Explain how Type A blood differs from Type B blood.
16. Explain the cause of erythroblastosis fetalis. (What a mouthful)
17. Explain how heparin inhibits blood clot formation.
18. Differentiate between the process of blood clogt formation and the process of blood agglutination.
19. Why is the first Rh-positive baby born to a mother of Rh-negative blood usually not affected?

Chapter 13: (1-17) on page 392

1. Describe the heart and its position in the body.
2. Name the four chambers of the heart.
3. What’s the myocardium? The endocardium?
4. Describe the two layers of the pericardium. Explain the function of the pericardial fluid?
5. Define or explain pericarditis and pericardial effusion.
6. What’s systole? Diastole?
7. Name and give the locations of the 4 heart valves.
8. Explain what is meant by a mitral valve prolapsed.
9. Explain what occurs in a myocardial infarction.
10. Trace the flow of blood from the superior vena cava to the aorta.
11. What’s angina pectoris?
12. Differentiate between stroke volume and cardiac output.
13. Trace the path and name the structures involved in the conduction system of the heart.
14. What is heart block? What’s bradycardia? What’s tachycardia.
15. What is fibrillation? Which is more dangerous, atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation?
16. Explain how the tracing on an ECG relate to the electric activity of the heart.
17. Explain how right-sided heart failure is usually caused by left-sided heart failure.

Chapter 14: (1-14) on page 418

1. Name and describe the main types of blood vessels in the body.
2. Name the three tissue layers that make up arteries and veins.
3. What’s arteriosclerosis?
4. What’s ischemia? Gangrene?
5. What’s an aneurism?
6. What’s phlebitis?
7. Describe both systemic and pulmonary circulation.
8. Name and briefly explain the four factors that influence blood pressure.
9. List 5 mechanisms that keep venous blood moving toward the right atrium.
10. What’s circulatory shock? List the 5 types.
11. Name 4 locations on the body where the pulse can be felt.
12. Explain how the formation of varicose veins is an example of a positive feedback mechanism.
13. Explain hepatic portal circulation. How is it different from normal circulation, and what advantages are gained from this type of circulation?
14. Explain the differences between normal post-natal circulation and fetal circulation. Base on the environment of the fetus, explain how these differences make fetal circulation more efficient.
END

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